Tridosha refers to the three doshas governing our physiological and physico-chemical activities. The three doshas are Vayu, Pitta and Kapha. They can be roughly translated as air, bile and phlegm. These doshas spread through the entire physique. When the doshas function normally, the body gets sustenance. And, the moment there is a flaw in the equilibrium of the doshas we suffer from various ailments. The body starts decaying.
Ayurveda identifies three basic metabolic body types corresponding to three basic life energy forces, or doshas. Each person’s constitution is seen as a mixture of these doshas. Advocates of Ayurvedic medicine believe health is a balance of these energy forces, resulting in the harmony of body, mind, and spirit in the individual as well as between the individual and the outer forces of the environment and society.
The Doshas have five sub-parts
Each of the doshas is again subdivided into five divisions. These subdivisions stand for five separate aspects of the doshas themselves. They are not five different entities in the body.
Almost all the vital organs of the body are hosts to either the doshas or their sub-parts. They regulate all functions of the mind and the body.
Seasons determine Doshas Characteristics
Ayurvedic principles have it that the doshas undergo significant changes (get aggravated) according to the seasons.
For instance, Kapha is influenced in Spring (February-April), while Pitta is affected during Autumn (October-December). Similarly, Vayu intensifies between June to August (the concluding part of Summer).
Hence, it is mandatory that according to the season one should initiate remedial or precautionary measures to obviate any possibilities of contracting any disease. The classical Ayurvedic tomes recommend the various remedial steps: During the Spring season, one should consciously use various techniques like vomiting to bring out the toxic materials accumulating within the body; go for purgation in Autumn; and take medicated enema towards the fag end of Summer.
Hosts of the Doshas
Mentionably, certain portions (organs and elements) of the body are permanent hosts to the doshas.
For instance, Vayu is permanently lodged in bones and the legs; the thighs; the pelvic region; the intestines, and the urinary bladder. Pitta is lodged permanently in the stomach; the blood; the lymph; and also in the sweat. The permanent seats of Kapha are fat tissues; the upper portion of the stomach; the joints; the neck; the head; and the thorax.
The Doshas are made of the Mahabhutas
All the Doshas are constituted of all the five Mahabhutas. In fact, the entire human body is composed of the Mahabhutas.
For instance, the Vayu Dosha is mainly made up of the Akasha and the Vayu Mahabhutas. The Pitta Dosha is dominated by the Agni Mahabhuta; while the Kapha Dosha is composed primarily of two Mahabhutas – Prithvi and Jala.
Note: For details of location of the Doshas, check out Appendix-I