The ancient Indian classics on sexology, religion and medicine have specific mentions on preparation of medications which are quite effective as male contraceptives. These are basically oral drugs. Here are the details:
(A) Curcuma longa powder
The Ratirabhasya states that if a male drinks the following concoction, he would become sterile. The medication is prepared from Curcuma longa (Haridra or Rajani) — grinded into powder — and then mixed with the goat urine. The Ratirabhasya claims that the mixture brings about instant sterility even in youths.
(B) Ejaculation prevention
In the Rasa-prakasha-sudhakara, a complete chapter has been devoted to describe various methods to prevent semen ejaculation during coitus. Such is the importance laid in the preservation of semen within the body.
Oral Contraceptives for Females
The ancient Indian classics on sexology, religion and medicine have detailed descriptions of preventing conception among females.
There are 28 formulae. While some bring about sterility among women; others prevent conception by preventing fertilization, and yet others stop the menstrual cycle.
Of these, four are churnas (powdery mixtures) to be taken with liquids like milk or water; one powdery mixture is to be consumed as a pill (tablet); three prepared with fruits – one mixed with wine and some others with honey and yet others along with rice-wash (water); two with sugary substances (one with milk and the other with rice-wash); and another with alcohol.
There are six contraceptives prepared from leaves of plants and trees; two from flowers; two from roots and three from seeds; one each from Curcuma longa; piper nigrum; Abrus precatorius; Clerodendrum phlomidis, old ghee; and Zizyphus jujuba.
They are reproduced here:
(1) Chandanadi Churna
This is another ideal potion to make a woman sterile. The prescription: Mix equal quantities of sugar, mustard and sandalwood and grind them into powder. Then, mix them with rice wash (water) and administer the concoction to the woman.
(2) Rasanjanadi Churna
This prescription is used to stop menstruation.
Make a powder from Baritaki (Terminalia chebula), Haimavati (Acorus calamus) and the aqueous extract of Rasanjana (Berberis aristata); and mix it with cold water. Mentionably, when there is no menstruation there cannot be conception.
(3) Dhatryadi Churna
This prescription, described in the Bhaishajya-ratnavali, is also effective against menstruation. The powdery brew is taken with water. It is prepared by grinding into powder the seeds of Abhaya (Terminalia chebula), Arjuna (Terminalia arjuna); and Dhatri (Emblica officinalis).
(4) Pippalyadi Churna
Described in the Brihannighantu ratnakara and the Yogaratnakara and the Bhavaprakasha, this prescription is administered to a woman to prevent conception. The brew should be consumed during the fertilization period
The preparation process: Grind the seeds of the following three ingredients and mix it with milk.
(5) Krishnajitakadi Vati
These pills halt menstruation and produce sterility. Five ingredients are taken in equal quantities and then grinded into their powdery forms. These components are Katphala (Myrica nagi); Kalaunji (Nigella sativa); Nagakeshara (Mesua ferrea); Kachura (Curucuma zedoaria) and Kala jira (Carum carvi). Next, the powders are mixed with water and rolled into pills.
This preparation procedure of this medication is described in the Kuchimaratantra.
(6) Wine&4 Fruits
To bring about sterility, women should drink wine mixed with four particular fruits. These are Chandana (Santalum album); Balaka (Valeriana wallichi); Kadamba (Anthocephalus indicus); and Kutaja (Holarrhena antidysenterica).
(7) Kadamba Fruit & Honey
This medication brings about sterility among women. The details are given in the Anangaranga and the Panchasayaka.
The prescription mentioned in the Anangaranga should be taken for three days with hot water. It is prepared by mixing the Kadamba (Anthocephalus indicus) fruit with honey. The ratio is 1: 4 respectively.
On the other hand, the Panchasayaka prescribes the aforementioned concoction should be mixed with rice-wash (water). It further recommends intake of the brew for three continuous days after the menstrual cycle halts.
(8) Bakula Fruit
This prescription stops menstruation; and if consumed during the menstrual period the drug is effective in halting future menstruation.
The Bakula (Mimusops elengi) fruit needs to be grinded into the powdery form and made into a paste using alcohol.
(9) Sugar Candy with Milk
This medication is described in seven treatises, viz., the Brihannighantu ratnakara, the Yogaratnakara, the Balatanta, the Bhavaprakasha and the Kuchimaratantra. It is used to induce sterility among women.
The details are given in the Anangaranga and the Panchasayaka.
Its preparation is easy: Old sugar candy should be mixed with milk and taken orally by the woman.
(10) Sugar Candy with Rice Wash
The Balatanta prescribes this medication for inducing sterility in women. Rice wash (water) has to be mixed with sugar candy. This linctus is popular in many rural areas in India. The brew doesn’t affect the sexual passion of the woman concerned.
(11) Champaka Leaves
This prescription prevents conception. Pick atleast 20 fresh leaves of the Champaka (Michelia champaca) tree and soak them in water overnight. Make a paste out of them. Administer the paste to the woman during her menstrual period.
Mentionably, this contraceptive remains effective according to the number of the leaves taken. In other words, the contraceptive period tallies with the number of leaves of the Champaka tree.
(12) Talisha Leaves
The Yogaratnakara and the Brihad-yoga-tarangini recommend the prescription for inducing sterility in women.
The preparation process: Choose a minimum of 25 fresh leaves of the Talisha (Abies webbiana) plant and grind it into a powdery form. Then, mix the powder with ochre (gairika).
(13) Tala Leaves
Leaves of the Tala (Borassus flaberllifer) tree are to be mixed with red ochre and powdered. Then, the grinded mixture is to be consumed with cold water on the fourth day of the menstrual period. It induces sterility.
(14) Patha Leaves
This is a simple prescription to prevent conception. The woman needs to consume at least 25 leaves of the Patha (Cissampelos pareira) plant after having her purificatory bath following menstruation.
(15) Shelu Leaves
The Bhaishajya ratnavali prescribes this medication to stop the menstrual cycle.
The woman concerned needs to consume the paste prepared from the leaves of the Shelu (Cordia dichotoma) tree
(16) Trapusa Leaves
The Bhaishajya ratnavali also prescribes another medication to halt menstruation.
The paste has to be prepared from the leaves of the Trapusa (Cucumis sativus) tree and taken regularly.
(17) Shalmali Flowers
This prescription is described in the Tantra sara sangraha. Regular intake of the flowers of Shalmali (Salmalia malabarica) plant causes sterility.
(18) Japa Flowers
This prescription induces sterility in women.
If taken after conception, it induces abortion.
And, if this medication is taken during child delivery, it prevents future conception.
The prescription is described in five treatises, viz., the Brihad-yoga-tarangini, the Yogaratnakara, the Balatantra, the Brihannighanta ratnakara, and the Bhavaprakasha.
The woman simply needs to consume regularly flowers of the Japa (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis) plant.
(19) Jambu Flowers
This prescription is prepared from the flowers of Jambu (Syzygium cumini) plant. It is to be mixed with the urine of cow.
It leads to sterility in women. The concoction should be taken during menstruation.
(20) Tanduliyaka Roots
This prescription is described in the three treatises, viz., the Brihannighanta ratnakara, the Brihad-yogatarangini, and the Yogaratnakara.
Its consumption makes a woman sterile. However, it has no effects on her menses. Her menstrual cycle will continue normally. The brew is to be administered to the woman for three days during her menstrual phase.
The preparation process: The root of the plant Tanduliyaka (Amaranthus spinosus) is to be mixed with rice wash (water) and made into a paste.
(21) Chitraka Roots
This prescription — described in the Panchasayaka, the Anangaranga, and the Kuchimaratantra — makes a woman barren for good.
The recipe: A root of the plant Chitraka (Plumbago zeylanica) needs to be boiled with rice wash (water) for at least 30 minutes. The mixture is then filtered. The filtered potion should be consumed after the menstrual cycle stops. It is necessary that the potion is taken for three dyas thereafter.
(22) Sarshapa Seeds
Altogether four treatises mention this medication as a means to prevent menstruation, conception and to also induce sterility.
The Brihad-yoga-tarangini recommends the seeds of Sarshapa (Brassica compestris) to be mixed with gingelly oil. The brew is to be taken for three days during the menstrual period. It prevents conception,
The Kuchimaratantra refers to Sarshapa mixture as a drug to stop menstruation. It prescribes two other items – sugar and rice grains – to be added to Sarshapa, all in equal quantities. Then, the mixture needs to be mixed with rice wash (water).
The Anangaranga as well as the Panchasayaka prescribes Sarshapa seeds to be taken with other typical items to cause sterility in women.
The Anangaranga recommends Sarshapa seeds to be taken with rice wash (water). This concoction should be consumed continuously for a week during the fertilisation period.
The Panchasayaka specifically mentions the white variety of rice to be used for the rice wash (water).
(23) Palasha Seeds
This prescription is recommended by the four treatises, namely the Yogaratna-samuchchaya, the Garudapurana, the Panchasayaka, and the Yogachintamani.
The Yogaratna-samuchchaya recommends the prescription for stopping the menstrual cycle. The Palash (Butea monosperma) seeds should be grinded into the powdery form before consumption.
On the other hand, the Garudapurana prescribes a paste to be formed by first grinding the Palash seeds; and then mixing the powder with honey. This paste has to be taken during her menstrual period. According to the Garudapurana, this concoction will not only immediately stop menstruation but also prevent future conception.
The Panchasayaka recommends two versions of this medication. But, both have the same effect of producing sterility. The ingredients of the first version are Palash seeds, a Kshirivriksha (Mimusops hexandra) fruit and a Shalmali (Salmalia malharica). These are to be mixed with alcohol. The brew should be consumed 15 days. The second version gives the option of ghee instead of alcohol.
The Yogachintamani recipe is also for inducing sterility. The prescription of powdered Palash seeds are to be consumed with water for three days during the fertilisation phase.
A woman needs to regularly consume seeds of a Palash tree.
(24) Caster Seeds
This prescription prevents fertilisation. The pulp of one or two castor seeds needs to be regularly consumed by the woman during her menstrual periods. Depending on whether one is consuming one or two castor seeds, the prevention period (of fertilisation) extends to one or two years respectively.
The Kuchimaratantra states that this prescription induces sterility. It also adds that the prescription does not have any side effects on the menstrual cycle.
To enjoy the benefits, one needs to daily consume a piece of the rhizome of Haridra (Cucuma longa) for a week. The calculation of the days should be made in such a way so that the first three days of the medication intake include the last three days of the menses while the remaining four days are made up of those days after the menstrual cycle.
All possibilities of one having menses are obviated if one takes this medication for three days during the menstrual cycle.
This medication is detailed in the Yoga-ratna-samuchchaya.
It is prepared by making a paste of the white variety of Maricha (Piper nigrum) and sugar water.
(27) Old Ghee
A woman can induce sterility if she consumes ghee (made from cow’s milk) for a fortnight. However, the ghee should be at least three years old.
This prescription stops all possibilities of conception. The woman should consume Badari (Zizyphus jujuba) and lac boiled in gingelly oil.